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Full text of "Byzantine Churches In Constantinople"

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i                        BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE                        9
The typical late Byzantine church is a development from the domed cross plan. In three examples in Constantinople, S. Theodosia (pp. 1703172), S. Mary Diaconissa (p. 185)5 and SS. Peter and Mark (p. 193)3 we can trace the gradual disappearance of the galleries. S. Theodosia, as has already been mentioned, has galleries in all three cross arms. In S. Mary Diaconissa they are confined to the four angles between the cross arms ; SS. Peter and Mark is a simple cross plan without galleries. In later times it became customary to build many small churches, with the result that the chambers at the
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Fic. 6.—THE CHURCH OF THE KOIMESIS, NICAEA (Rott).
angles of the cross, of little account even in a large church, were now too diminutive to be of any value, and the question how to provide as much room as possible for the worshippers became paramount. Accordingly the dome piers were reduced to mere columns connected with the outer walls of the building by arches ; and thus was produced the typical late Byzantine plan—at the ground level a square, enclosing four columns ; above, a Greek cross with a dome on the centre.
From its distinguishing feature this type has been styled the c four column' plan. It appears in many Constantino-politan churches, as, for example, S. Theodore (p. 248) and S. Saviour Pantepoptes (p, 214). The cross arms are